Darren Sawyer is the senior advisor for Navy Enterprise Information Technology for the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (DCNO) for Information Dominance (N2/N6) and the lead for the Navy’s journey to the Intelligence Community Information Technology Enterprise (IC ITE) and Defense Department Joint Information Environment (JIE).
In his role as a Senior Advisor for Navy Enterprise Architecture, Sawyer provides direct support to the Deputy Director of Naval Intelligence (OPNAV N2/N61), Ms. Lynn Wright on Navy intelligence architecture alignment, to the Deputy Chief Information Officer Ms. Janice Haith (OPNAV N2/N6BC) on intelligence architecture policies and portfolio compliance, and to the Assured Command and Control Division under Mr. Matt Swartz (OPNAV N2/N6F), for afloat and ashore Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) programs of record.
Working across these staff elements is very exciting, Sawyer said, as the Navy operationalizes its Information Dominance Strategy through better positioning of the information dominance pillars of Assured C2, Battlespace Awareness and Integrated Fires.
It is his task to work within the Navy to ensure these core information dominance pillars enable alignment to IC ITE and JIE, Sawyer said, at an AFCEA event in Norfolk, Virginia, Sept. 9. Both initiatives require enterprise architecture transformations. These transformations are fundamentally changing how the Navy will deliver information technology and cyber capabilities in a joint setting — and as part of the national intelligence community.
Both IC ITE and JIE are focused on driving toward greater efficiencies: delivering IT services at lower costs, greater effectiveness, and delivering the right IT enablers for warfighting effects, intelligence mission sets and greater security — and raising the security postures against increasingly sophisticated and persistent cyber threats.
Increasing and persistent cyber threats drove recent OPNAV realignments, Sawyer said. The clear acknowledgment of cybersecurity vulnerabilities within the naval networking environment prompted a “cyber awakening.” As a result, the Chief of Naval Operations directed that Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance, Vice Adm. Ted Branch establish Task Force Cyber Awakening (TFCA) to gain a holistic view of cybersecurity risk across the Navy and to address the fragmented and uneven information assurance efforts across naval platforms and systems.
The goal is to establish a program called CYBERSAFE, Sawyer said, to be modeled after the submarine community’s successful SUBSAFE program. SUBSAFE is a quality assurance program that stresses water-tight safety in the nuclear-powered submarine fleet with emphasis on hull integrity. Sawyer said that CYBERSAFE will enhance the cybersecurity of the Navy’s networks which are fundamental to its warfighting capability. The intent is stand up CYBERSAFE by November 2015.
Also of note, next month, the Navy will establish commander, Navy Information Dominance Forces, as a type command (TYCOM) for Information Dominance Readiness afloat and ashore. This new command will be singularly focused on ensuring the cyber readiness of information dominance capabilities across the Navy. Rear Adm. Matthew J. Kohler will become the first commander of the new TYCOM.
JIE and ICITE are transformational initiatives, Sawyer said, with similar focus areas but different approaches. “The idea is that these initiatives are taking us on a path that we should be on,” he said. “Quite often I help people understand that the process is as important, if not more, as the destination.”
Both initiatives have similar focus areas, often referred to as “big rocks.” JIE’s big rocks include: data center consolidation; network normalization; enterprise services; identity and access management; and single security architecture.
IC ITE big rocks include the JIE big rocks, but also a common desk top environment (enterprise service); enterprise cloud environment (commercial-based cloud offerings and government-based cloud offerings); an applications mall (ozone-widget framework and cloud apps enabling); identity authentication and authorization management (IdAM); network requirements and engineering services (network normalization); and security coordination services (single security architecture). Figure 1 provides an overview of IC ITE.
Although these two initiatives are executed under different approaches, JIE is focused on the SIPRNET and below domains, while IC ITE is focused on the SCI domain; they are pursuing interoperability under the auspices of the Defense Intelligence Information Environment — DI2E, led by the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I)), Sawyer explained.
Navy architecture transformation under IC ITE and JIE involves many stakeholders and programs of record. In some cases, the Navy is out in front of required alignment to the respective big rocks and in others, we are playing catch-up, Sawyer said.
The JIE is being managed from the bottom-up with the services responsible for building their components in accordance with architecture interoperability goals guided by technical and data standards. IC ITE, on the other hand, is being managed from the top-down.
Director of National Intelligence James Clapper designated the “big five” intelligence agencies to take the lead in building IC ITE capability. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is one of the 17 U.S. intelligence agencies and considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), to be one of the big five U.S. intelligence agencies. Figure 2 shows a list of IC ITE Service Providers.
To propel the Navy forward, Sawyer uses a set of milestones that he calls the “Path of Intended Movement” to meet targets set by IC ITE and the JIE.
Building the transformational architectures for both IC ITE and the JIE has been a forcing function for the IC and services to “pack up and clean up” the computing fabric of their IT enterprises, this includes their data, systems, networks, computing hosting facilities and applications, Sawyer said.
“We are looking at processes and cybersecurity and the JIE and IC ITE initiatives have led or are leading to tremendous by-products and dividends. I tell people, if we are all in we can get it done. This is not a linear effort, and it involves leadership at all levels to contribute in a meaningful way. We have metrics to keep us moving forward... Some of the significant intangibles associated with executing enterprise transformation have been improved stakeholder alignment and engagement, overall improvements in enterprise IT operational efficiencies and effectiveness, organizational cultural shifts and engaged leadership,” Sawyer said.
“If we don’t make progress we have to explain to the acting DoD CIO Terry Halvorsen and Director Clapper, why not. Programs that are not making progress are subject to higher level scrutiny and oversight as well as potential funding constraints so it has been a forcing mechanism to roll up our sleeves and clean up the enterprise,” Sawyer said.
“It is not a surprise that the greatest obstacle has been resistance to change,” Sawyer said. “Most prefer to sit on the sidelines and watch the action, some would prefer to engage when it’s most opportune, and others are decisively engaged seeking to make tangible contributions towards success. Nevertheless, we are seeing notable changes, in a positive way — in enterprise behavior that will prove invaluable to how the Navy and the Information Dominance community delivers results against the CNO tenets of Warfighting First, Operate Forward and Be Ready.”
Efforts under the JIE and IC ITE are driving greater stakeholder alignment across the OPNAV staff, fleet commanders, Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Joint Staff, Navy Technical Authority — Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) 5.0, Program Executive Offices, such as the PEO for Enterprise Information Systems (PEO EIS) and PEO Program Executive Office for Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (PEO C4I), and others, he explained. See Figure 3 for the Navy Intelligence Enterprise list of stakeholders.
“All the services have skin in the game in working toward the strategies and visions,” Sawyer said. “We [N2/N6] look at JIE and IC ITE as information dominance architectures, with attention to ensuring all the pieces and components are interoperable aloft, ashore and afloat. We are making investment decisions across the programs of record and aligning stakeholders to bring to life these capabilities. ”
Clapper stood up IC ITE three years ago to change the behavior in the IC by tearing down silos and increasing capabilities to force the community to look at their data as belonging to the entire IC, Sawyer said. “Clapper has repeatedly stated IC agency data is an IC asset,” Sawyer said.
Previously, the 17 intelligence agencies operated independently protecting their own parochial interests, he said.
The intent is to deliver tactical capabilities to the combatant commanders and to modernize the IT infrastructure with cloud-based widgets, data services and IC enterprise level solutions so the CoCOMS can quickly surge tailored support to operational forces in a more responsive, agile and flexible manner. Considering the state of affairs in the Middle East today, we must improve analysts’ ability to access meaningful data and use it in support of operations, Sawyer explained.
IC ITE is a SCI-based suite of enterprise-level IT components and infrastructure, operated by a consortium of service providers adhering to IC enterprise principles, governance and technology standards. IC ITE provides many benefits to enable the IC’s priority mission activities, Sawyer explained.
First, IC ITE increases mission agility, making it easier and faster to integrate new mission capabilities into operations through common standards and components. It increases the IC’s capacity and ability to surge and support unforeseen mission requirements through virtualization/Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). It enhances discovery, access, and secure information sharing through a common framework and creates a more defendable IT infrastructure, Sawyer said.
IC ITE promotes more efficient and secure IT operations across IC agencies by reducing the IT environment’s complexity, and it creates a strategic platform for innovation.
Key components/capabilities of IC ITE include the IC Cloud (CLD) (GovCloud/C2S), Desktop Environment (DTE), Applications Mall (AML), Identification, Authentication and Authorization (IAA), Enterprise Service Management (EMT), Security Coordination Center/Services (SCC) and Network Requirements and Engineering Service (NRES). Figure 4 illustrates IC ITE goals and key components.
Full operational capability is forecasted for FY18. Finalization of the Navy IC ITE Adoption Plan is scheduled for the fourth quarter of FY14. Sawyer is shepherding synchronization efforts and key milestones to achieve the start of naval adoption of IC ITE in the fourth quarter of FY16. By 2020, the entire IC enterprise will be on IC ITE.
Navy IC ITE planning is focused on enterprise services leveraging the JIE and Defense Intelligence Information Enterprise (DI2E) framework and enterprise cross domain services/solutions.
Figure 5 shows the Navy draft integrated master schedule (IMS) with some of the key activities/actions that are being executed by Navy integrated planning teams. This figure also shows planned activities to include adoption pilots, rationalization initiatives, and activities designed to deliver IC ITE solutions to Navy programs of record, such as the Distributed Common Ground System-Navy (DCGS-N), Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) and Global Command and Control System-Maritime (GCCS-M), Sawyer explained.
The Navy IC ITE adoption strategy focuses on creating Navy intelligence enterprise IT behavior through governance, stakeholder commitment, engagement and alignment in reporting, Sawyer said. Most believe that the Navy intelligence enterprise consists of just the Office of Naval Intelligence. In reality, the Navy intelligence enterprise consists of organizations across the Navy that range from Fleet Forces Command to PMW 120, Battlespace Awareness and Information Operations Program Offices, under PEO C4I.
PMW 120 is accelerating its delivery of DCGS-N capabilities through a project called NITROS — Naval Integrated Tactical-Cloud Reference for Operational Superiority. NITROS development will take place in the IC ITE cloud and enable accelerated delivery of Navy cloud computing afloat constructs, Sawyer said. A segment within CANES, called Afloat Core Services (ACS), is the services-oriented architecture that forms a key part of the common system supporting an open-source set of services that support command and control, integrated fires and maritime data services.
Former DoD CIO Teri Takai launched the JIE vision to reduce the department’s IT budget, simplify its IT infrastructure, and improve cybersecurity and interoperability between the services. The large number of legacy systems, including applications, people and networks, created too many vulnerabilities and hindered information sharing, Sawyer said. Figure 6 shows a summary of the DoD cyber footprint.
The JIE is envisioned as a secure information environment, comprised of IT infrastructure, enterprise services, and a single security architecture to improve mission effectiveness, increase security and realize IT efficiencies.
JIE is the largest restructuring of IT management in the history of the DoD. The JIE is being designed as a federation of shared infrastructure with enterprise services, accessed by identity management, with lower costs to operate. It will be defensible, redundant and resilient, Sawyer explained.
All the services are pursuing multiple parts of the effort concurrently. DISA is tasked with collecting requirements and establishing enterprise services.
The Navy and Marine Corps took the lead to address the tactical A2/AD (Anti-Access/Area-Denial) strategy and stood up working groups from SPAWAR to “peel back the onion to see what the services need to do to enable modernized IT services in an A2/AD within the context of JIE,” Sawyer said.
The JIE seven big rocks (see Figure 7) are being led by the Joint Staff J6, DISA and DoD CIO, with strong Army influence. At present the level of effort has been on the establishment of an Enterprise Operation Center, and core data centers. JIE Increment 1 reached Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in July 2013 with the opening of the first regional Enterprise Operations Center (EOC) in Stuttgart, Germany for U.S. European Command.
Increment 2 is focused on building capabilities for U.S. Pacific Command, Sawyer said.
"The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance, Admiral Branch, has challenged his staff and key Navy stakeholders to get out in front of the JIE train and better shape its path such that Navy equities are clearly addressed and, where it makes sense, lead some of the JIE initiatives. Vice Adm. Branch sees JIE Increment 2 as an opportunity for the Navy to do just this. The Navy is the executive agent for PACOM and also serves as its resource sponsor," he said.
The Navy intends to leverage the Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN) acquisition strategy as a means to deliver JIE Inc 2 enterprise capabilities and services for PACOM. “Through NGEN we believe we can do so at better price points for DoD,” Sawyer said.
There is no separate line item for funding the Navy’s portion of the JIE; rather, the Navy is using programs of record as part of its planned IT capabilities modernization to align with the interoperability standards of JIE.
The Joint Regional Security Stacks (JRSS) are a key component of the JIE Single Security Architecture that enables centralized network management and visibility and control over the DoD Information Network (DoDIN) and network resources. The JRSS provides network services such as Domain Name Service, web content filtering, security monitoring, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, and network protection for all bases, posts, camps and stations.
The JRSS consists of approximately 14 standardized racks deployed at 25 locations for both SIPRNET and NIPRNET environments. Figure 8 describes the JRSS environment.
“At some point in over the next 18 months, we expect to see JRSS installed in Hampton Roads, Virginia; San Diego; Naples, Italy; Bahrain; and Hawaii at Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area Master Station Pacific,” Sawyer said.
“DoD CIO Terry Halvorsen held a series of workshops with the DoD CIO team to hammer out the true value of JRSS — the costs, the savings and security services. JRSS is a single rack of equipment that provides command and control across operations. The Navy’s security services expand across a compendium of solution sets, sites and organizations operating as a cohesive ‘stack’ to deliver Navy enterprise security services. The Navy is currently driving the fielding of JRSS 2.0. JRSS 2.0 is about having a full complement of security services to meet all customer requirements, not just Army and Air Force requirements,” Sawyer said.
The Navy’s IT modernization efforts are tied to the availability of ships for maintenance so it is lagging behind in its afloat force IT upgrades, Sawyer said. But the Army is where the Navy and Marine Corps were 10 years ago reducing legacy circuits, applications and networks.
Through the NMCI and CANES programs over more than 10 years, the Navy and Marine Corps consolidated 1,300 legacy networks to 88. In addition, using a standards-based approach, the Navy and Marine Corps are consolidating data centers by application, computing services and computing infrastructure rationalization to drive greater efficiencies and eliminate redundancies and version variance, Sawyer explained. All of the Navy’s enterprise IT investment decisions are founded on conducting business case analyses to determine best value solutions. Figure 9 shows how the Navy has aligned its networking environment to leverage programs of record to fund IT modernization and cybersecurity improvements.
“The transformation of the naval networking environment in accordance with JIE and IC ITE technical and data standards is a solid platform for information dominance,” Sawyer said.
“The good thing about having Terry Halvorsen as DoD CIO is that he understands the Navy’s plan and advocates for value propositions in leveraging scarce IT investment resources,” Sawyer said.
Sawyer explained that the Navy needs open architectures and non-proprietary solutions to reduce IT costs. “The goals are reliable, resilient, affordable, and modular hardware … [and] multi-purpose modules, which are easy to install,” he said.
“The Navy needs 80 percent solutions up front — warfighters will drive enhancements,” Sawyer said.
Sawyer explained the expected outcomes of the Navy’s JIE efforts will be: enhanced warfighting capabilities; improved network and cyber security; an increase in resource efficiencies; interoperability with joint and coalition partners; and the ability to keep pace with technology advances and commercial partners.